Higher Education for Jobs in India or Jobs Abroad? (Melbourne)

Jun
04

Date: Thursday, Jun 4, 2015

Time: 1:00PM - 2:00PM

Barbara Falk Room, Melbourne CSHE. Level 1, 715 Swanston St, Carlton, Melbourne

Add to Calendarhttp://higheredresearch.net/events/26106-04-2015 03:00:0006-04-2015 04:00:0035Higher Education for Jobs in India or Jobs Abroad? (Melbourne)A reference is made to the distinction between “internal efficiency” of education which focuses on how effective an education system is in producing the desired levels of graduates, and “external efficiency” which focuses on how effectively the graduates of an education system, in particular higher education, are absorbed in the labour market by getting appropriate jobs. An overview of the structure of education in India, beginning from elementary education to secondary education to higher education is provided along with the number of institutions in India by the latest estimates. Comparative static estimates of Human Resources in Science and Technology (HRST) at various points in time from 1981 onwards are presented, highlighting the extent of HRSTE in jobs outside the domain of HRSTO in India, signifying misemployment or “brain waste”, as well as mismatch with the quantitative demand surpassing the supply. In addition, qualitative mismatch of technical and general graduates failing to meet the requirement of offshore IT and BPO industry are cited. This is contrasted against the sharp concentration of highly educated Indians occupying high-end managerial and professional jobs abroad in the developed OECD countries including the United States. Thus, the supply of human capital in India’s higher education presents a paradox of quantity and quality between jobs in India and jobs abroad. The argument is substantiated through a global expectation map showing that by 2020 India would meet over 80% of world deficit of highly educated and skilled workers. One reason for this is the “demographic dividend” that India would enjoy till 2040 in terms of having the world’s youngest population. A shift away from occupation-tied and career specific specializations in higher education to occupation-wide generic education is used to explain how the global human capital stock is getting divided into “Knowledge workers” and “Service workers” - with varying components of education, knowledge, experience, training and activity – the former being in great demand globally and selectively. The selectivity of the “labour market abroad” is getting reflected through immigration policies in favour of workers with high end education and skills (UNESCO’s level’s 5,6 and 7), in the face of overall migration levels remaining static. Further the selectivity is made dynamic and perpetual by the developed receiving countries promoting temporary immigration over permanent settlement. This is done to derive three kinds of advantages in the “labour market abroad” - of what the speaker calls “Age, Wage and Vintage”, which needs to acknowledged and accounted for. It is also argued why and how India too needs to give due emphasis to the other side of this mobility, viz., immigrants having or looking for jobs in India, and how investment in their education would help raise India’s average productivity of labour from its present low levels, and thereby maximize the external efficiency of education at home. This however would satisfy only the necessary condition of external efficiency in isolation. To make this work as an engine of global development too would require India to initiate the sufficient condition of engaging the counterpart countries through what the speaker calls EAA – Equitable Adversary Analysis – as opposed to ever-changing and unstable game-theoretic hide and seek strategies that the origin and destination countries play against each other while dealing with international mobility. The lecture is concluded by saying that perhaps there are avenues in the fields of student and teacher mobility that India could explore in collaboration with other countries like Australia, as an engine of external efficiency in education for economic development, both national and global. Presenter: Professor Binod Khadria Professor of Economics and Education and Director, International Migration and Diaspora Studies (IMDS) Project School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India Barbara Falk Room, Melbourne CSHE. Level 1, 715 Swanston St, Carlton, Melbourne falseMM/DD/YYYY

A reference is made to the distinction between “internal efficiency” of education which focuses on how effective an education system is in producing the desired levels of graduates, and “external efficiency” which focuses on how effectively the graduates of an education system, in particular higher education, are absorbed in the labour market by getting appropriate jobs. An overview of the structure of education in India, beginning from elementary education to secondary education to higher education is provided along with the number of institutions in India by the latest estimates. Comparative static estimates of Human Resources in Science and Technology (HRST) at various points in time from 1981 onwards are presented, highlighting the extent of HRSTE in jobs outside the domain of HRSTO in India, signifying misemployment or “brain waste”, as well as mismatch with the quantitative demand surpassing the supply. In addition, qualitative mismatch of technical and general graduates failing to meet the requirement of offshore IT and BPO industry are cited. This is contrasted against the sharp concentration of highly educated Indians occupying high-end managerial and professional jobs abroad in the developed OECD countries including the United States. Thus, the supply of human capital in India’s higher education presents a paradox of quantity and quality between jobs in India and jobs abroad. The argument is substantiated through a global expectation map showing that by 2020 India would meet over 80% of world deficit of highly educated and skilled workers. One reason for this is the “demographic dividend” that India would enjoy till 2040 in terms of having the world’s youngest population.

A shift away from occupation-tied and career specific specializations in higher education to occupation-wide generic education is used to explain how the global human capital stock is getting divided into “Knowledge workers” and “Service workers” - with varying components of education, knowledge, experience, training and activity – the former being in great demand globally and selectively. The selectivity of the “labour market abroad” is getting reflected through immigration policies in favour of workers with high end education and skills (UNESCO’s level’s 5,6 and 7), in the face of overall migration levels remaining static. Further the selectivity is made dynamic and perpetual by the developed receiving countries promoting temporary immigration over permanent settlement. This is done to derive three kinds of advantages in the “labour market abroad” - of what the speaker calls “Age, Wage and Vintage”, which needs to acknowledged and accounted for. It is also argued why and how India too needs to give due emphasis to the other side of this mobility, viz., immigrants having or looking for jobs in India, and how investment in their education would help raise India’s average productivity of labour from its present low levels, and thereby maximize the external efficiency of education at home.

This however would satisfy only the necessary condition of external efficiency in isolation. To make this work as an engine of global development too would require India to initiate the sufficient condition of engaging the counterpart countries through what the speaker calls EAA – Equitable Adversary Analysis – as opposed to ever-changing and unstable game-theoretic hide and seek strategies that the origin and destination countries play against each other while dealing with international mobility. The lecture is concluded by saying that perhaps there are avenues in the fields of student and teacher mobility that India could explore in collaboration with other countries like Australia, as an engine of external efficiency in education for economic development, both national and global.

Presenter:

Professor Binod Khadria
Professor of Economics and Education and Director, International Migration and Diaspora Studies (IMDS) Project
School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India